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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Nickname: "Monument City" (by John Quincy Adams on a visit in 1827), "Charm City", "Mob Town", "B-more"
Motto: "The Greatest City in America" (formerly "The City That Reads"; "BELIEVE" is not the official motto but rather a specific campaign)'"
Location of Baltimore in Maryland
Coordinates 39°17'11?N, 76°36'54?W
County United States
Mayor Martin J. O'Malley (D)
City 238.5 km² (92.1 sq mi)
Land 209.3 km² (80.8 sq mi)
Water 29.2 km² (11.3 sq mi)
City (2004) 636,251
Metro 2,639,213 (MSA)
Elevation 10 m (33 ft)
Summer (DST) EST (UTC-5)
"Baltimore" redirects here. For other uses, see Baltimore (disambiguation).
Baltimore is an independent city located in the U.S. state of Maryland on the eastern coast of the United States of America. As of 2005, the population was 641,943, down slightly from 643,304 in 2004, but higher than the century-long low of 636,251 in 2000. The population of the Baltimore-Washington metropolitan area, as of 2005, was estimated to be 8,052,496, up from 7.6 million in 2000. Baltimore is the largest city in Maryland and serves as the state's major cultural and industrial center. The city is named after the founding proprietor of the Maryland Colony, Lord Baltimore. Baltimore became the second leading port of entry for immigrants to the United States during the 1800s. The city is a major U.S. seaport, situated closer to major midwestern markets than any other major seaport on the East Coast. Baltimore Harbor is one of the best protected deepwater seaports in the world, with the Delmarva Peninsula shielding the area from most hurricanes and tropical storms, and the Appalachian Mountains protecting the city from much of the winter cold that would freeze the harbor.
After New York City, Baltimore was the second city in the United States to reach a population of 100,000, (followed by New Orleans, Philadelphia, Boston). Baltimore remained one of the 10 largest cities in the United States from 1790 until about 1980. The city and metropolitan area currently rank in the top 20 in terms of population. In addition, Baltimore is one of the largest cities in the Mid Atlantic States.
Because there is also a Baltimore County surrounding (but not including) the city, it is sometimes referred to as Baltimore City when a clear distinction is desired.
2 Law and government
2.2 Baltimore City Council
2.3 State Government
2.4 Federal Government
3.1 Natty Boh
3.2 The Block
3.5 Corned Beef Row
3.6 H. L. Mencken
3.7 Miss USA
4 Geography and climate
5.1 Passenger rail
7 Baltimore Metropolitan Area
7.1 Baltimore Neighborhoods
8.1 Colleges and universities
8.2 Public schools
8.2.1 Private schools
10 Museums and attractions
11 Sports teams
11.1 Defunct (or moved) Sports Teams
12 Sister cities
13 Baltimore in Fiction
During the 17th century, various towns called "Baltimore" were founded as commercial ports at various locations on the upper Chesapeake Bay. The present city dates from July 30, 1729, and is named after Lord Baltimore, who was the first Proprietary Governor of the Province of Maryland. Baltimore grew swiftly in the mid- to late 18th century as the granary for sugar-producing colonies in the Caribbean. The profit from sugar encouraged the maximum possible cultivation of cane and the importation of food. The relatively shorter distance between Baltimore and the Caribbean colonies allowed swift transport and minimized the spoilage of flour.
Battle Monument with Washington Monument in backgroundOne of Baltimore's greatest moments occurred during the War of 1812 with the British, who had declared Baltimore "A nest of Pirates." Baltimore's Fort McHenry came under attack by British forces near the harbor after the British had burned Washington, D.C. Known today as the Battle of Baltimore, American forces won the decisive battles by repulsing a joint land and naval attack by the British forces. They fought to a stalemate at the Battle of North Point after killing the British commander General Ross. British reinforcements were not possible after the British Navy was repulsed by the defenders of the fort, and all forces then withdrew. It was the naval engagement that inspired Francis Scott Key to write the poem "The Star-Spangled Banner," the lyrics to the United States' national anthem. The battle was memorialized in the Battle Monument which is on the city seal.
Baltimore harbor in 1849 with the prominent Washington monument in the background North of the cityBaltimore is also the site of the first architectural monument honoring George Washington, a 178-foot Doric column erected in 1829 and designed by Robert Mills, who later designed the Washington Monument in Washington, D.C.
Baltimore became an independent city in 1851, being detached from Baltimore County at that time.
Prior to the Civil War, Maryland was a southern slave state. During the Civil War, Maryland was officially part of the Union but kept slavery legal. Most people in Baltimore at the time were sympathetic to the Confederacy. Pro-Southern sentiment led to the Baltimore riot of 1861, when Union soldiers marched through the city. After the riot, Union troops occupied Baltimore, and Maryland came under direct federal administration — in part, to prevent the state from seceding — until the end of the war in April 1865. This was considered a necessary move by the Union to prevent Washington, D.C., from being completely surrounded by seceded Confederate territory. The case Ex parte Merryman, written by Supreme Court Chief Justice Roger Taney, dealt with the habeas corpus rights of Marylanders jailed by the Abraham Lincoln Administration and strongly rebuked Lincoln for his actions.
The Great Baltimore Fire on February 7, 1904, destroyed over 1,500 buildings in 30 hours and forced most of the city to rebuild. Immediately afterward, Mayor Robert McLane was quoted in the Baltimore News as saying, "To suppose that the spirit of our people will not rise to the occasion is to suppose that our people are not genuine Americans. We shall make the fire of 1904 a landmark not of decline but of progress." He then refused assistance, stating "As head of this municipality, I cannot help but feel gratified by the sympathy and the offers of practical assistance which have been tendered to us. To them I have in general terms replied, 'Baltimore will take care of its own, thank you.'" (McLane committed suicide on May 30.) Two years later, on September 10, 1906, the Baltimore-American reported that the city had risen from the ashes and "One of the great disasters of modern time had been converted into a blessing."
Great Baltimore Fire of 1904, looking West from Pratt and Gay Streets.
Same view in 1906, 2 years after the fireBaltimore is the location of the Baltimore World Trade Center, the world's tallest equilateral five-sided building (the five-sided JPMorganChase Tower in Houston, Texas is taller but has unequal sides).
Baltimore is also the location of Pimlico Race Course, the home of the Preakness Stakes, the second leg of the Triple Crown of Thoroughbred Racing. The Preakness has been run since 1873.
Baltimore's population peaked at 949,708 in the 1950 Census, which ranked it as the sixth-largest city in the country, behind Detroit, and ahead of Cleveland. For the next five decades, the city's population declined while its suburbs grew dramatically, bottoming out in 2000 at 636,251. In the 21st century, the city's population has stabilized and is once again rising, mostly due to revitalization efforts in many city neighborhoods.
In 1955 Flag House Courts, a public housing project made up of 3 12-story buildings, was built. The buildings were eventually demolished in 2001.
Baltimore has become a prime city for filming movies and television. Many movies, such as Hairspray, Ladder 49, Serial Mom, Eraser, Enemy of the State, Cry-baby, scenes from 12 Monkeys, True Lies, and the film Hardball, were filmed in Baltimore; in fact, many scenes from the 1972 cult classic film Pink Flamingos were shot in the city's Waverly and Hampden neighborhoods (the film was made by John Waters, a Baltimore native). Additionally, television shows such as NBC's Homicide: Life on the Street and HBO's The Wire have also been filmed in the city. Television series Roc and Hot L Baltimore were set in the city. See Filmed in Baltimore for additional movies and shows filmed or set in Baltimore.
In recent years, efforts to redevelop the downtown area have led to a revitalization of the Inner Harbor. In 1979 the Baltimore Convention Center was opened and was subsequently renovated and expanded in 1996. Harborplace, a modern urban retail and restaurant complex, was opened on the waterfront in 1980, followed by the National Aquarium in Baltimore, Maryland's largest tourist destination, in 1981. In 1992, the Baltimore Orioles of Major League Baseball moved from Memorial Stadium to Oriole Park at Camden Yards downtown, and six years later the Baltimore Ravens of the National Football League moved next door into PSInet Stadium (later renamed M&T Bank Stadium following PSInet's bankruptcy).
On October 2, 1996, Baltimore became the first city in the United States to adopt 311 as a non-emergency "hot line" telephone number, in order to reserve the use of 911 for genuine emergencies. The concept has been highly successful, and numerous other American municipalities have since implemented the practice.
A 60-car train derailment occurred in a tunnel in Baltimore on July 18, 2001. The derailment sparked a chemical fire that raged for six days and virtually shut down the downtown area until the heat caused a water main to rupture, largely extinguishing the fire but also causing significant flooding in the streets above. Three weeks later, manhole covers flew into the air as underground explosions along West Pratt Street followed due to residual explosive chemicals from the fire left in the sewers.
In 2003, the Baltimore Development Corporation announced that three hotel projects were being reviewed. As of 2005, the 752-room, $305 million Hilton hotel project has received a 9-6 approval vote from the Baltimore City Council on August 15th. A second approval vote is scheduled for sometime in September 2005. The hotel is expected to be built near the Baltimore Convention Center. The City of Baltimore hopes to have it finished and opened by Spring 2008. (See Baltimore Convention Center Hotel Project for more details regarding the convention center hotel.)
Also in 2003, Baltimore was affected by Hurricane Isabel from flooding as a result of tidal surge, affecting primarily the Fells Point community and the Inner Harbor and surrounding low areas. Many places were flooded, including the sports center ESPN Zone, the Baltimore World Trade Center (which remained closed for approximately a month during cleanup efforts), and most of the Inner Harbor. Water levels rose some 20 feet in areas, flooding underground parking garages and displacing thousands of cubic yards of trash and debris.
A rendering of Baltimore with the Harbor East complexes, still under construction.In the early part of the 21st Century, Baltimore is undergoing a major building spree in the downtown area, specifically in the Inner Harbor East district. Earning the nickname "Crane City, USA," its skyline will extend further outward and upward in the next few decades. ARC Wheeler, a Philadelphia-based developer has been approved to build a new hotel/condominium complex that will be the city's new tallest building, dubbed "10 Inner Harbor", at 59 stories and 717ft tall.
Law and government
Baltimore is an independent city — in other words, not part of any county. For most governmental purposes under Maryland law, Baltimore City is treated as a "county"-level entity. Furthermore the United States Census Bureau uses counties as the basic unit for presentation of statistical information in the United States and treats Baltimore as a county equivalent for those purposes.
Baltimore has been a Democratic stronghold for over 150 years, with Democrats dominating every level of government.
The current mayor of Baltimore is Democrat Martin O'Malley, currently in his second term. He is currently campaigning for the Democratic Party nomination to challenge the Republican incumbent for Governor of Maryland. For a full list of mayors that served the city, see: List of Baltimore Mayors
Baltimore City Council
Grassroots pressure for reform, voiced as Question P, restructured the city council in November of 2002, against the will of the mayor, the council president, and the majority of the council. A coalition of union and community groups, organized by ACORN, backed the effort.
The Baltimore city council is now made up of 14 single member districts and one elected at-large council president. Sheila Dixon is the current council president. On November 2, 2004, Dixon won re-election in a two-way contest; Joan Floyd, a Green Party candidate, was the only challenger; the Republicans did not field a candidate.
Baltimore and its suburbs were long underrepresented in the Maryland General Assembly, while rural areas were heavily overrepresented. Since Baker v. Carr in 1969, however, the Baltimore and Washington suburbs account for a substantial majority of seats in the state legislature.
Baltimore dominated state politics for a long time before 1969, however; most of the state's highest elected officials come from the Baltimore area.
Baltimore is split between three congressional districts--the 2nd, represented by Dutch Ruppersberger; the 3rd, represented by Ben Cardin; and the 7th, represented by Elijah Cummings. All three are Democrats; a Republican has not represented a significant portion of Baltimore in decades.
Both of Maryland's Senators, Paul Sarbanes and Barbara Mikulski, are from Baltimore. Sarbanes is not running for reelection in 2006; both of the main Democratic candidates for his seat, Cardin and former 7th District Congressman Kwesi Mfume, are from Baltimore as well.
City Crime Rankings (12th Edition) ranks Baltimore most dangerous among American cities over 500,000 in population, second only to Detroit.  According to crime statistics there were 269 murders in Baltimore in 2005.  Though this is significantly lower than the record-high 353 murders in 1993, the murder rate in Baltimore is nearly seven times the national rate, six times the rate of New York City, and three times the rate of Los Angeles.
While murders have been relatively static, other categories of crime in Baltimore have been declining. The rate of forcible rapes has fallen below the national average in recent years. However, Baltimore still has much higher-than-average rates of aggravated assault, burglary, robbery, and theft. Though the crime situation in Baltimore is considered one of the worst in the nation, city officials are quick to point out that most violent crimes, particularly murders, are committed by people who know their victims and who are often associated with the illegal drug trade. City officials have , however, come under scrutiny from Maryland legislators regarding the veracity of crime statistics reported by the Baltimore City Police Department.  For 2003 the FBI identified irregularities in the number of rapes reported, which was confirmed by the Mayor. 2005's murder numbers appear to exhibit discrepancies as well  The former Commissioner of Police states upon interview that the administration suppressed corrections of its reported crime.  Numerous investigative reports have interviewed citizens and businesspersons who indicate that police refuse to file incident reports or that they downgrade incidents so as to conceal crime incidence.  Statistics compiled by independent groups indicate that many young men in the city are under the supervision of the criminal justice system. While racial disparities in arrest and incarceration rates exist in Baltimore, both young white and black men in the city are arrested and incarcerated at relatively high rates.
In an infamous case, community activist Angela Dawson and her family were murdered by firebomb in their Baltimore home on October 16, 2002, in retaliation for Dawson's reporting of criminal activity. Another fire-bombed public safety activist, Edna McAbier, has fled her neighborhood. The State's Attorney for Baltimore City characterizes the city as dominated by terrorists.  A recent newscast e-survey found that over 75% of respondents did not feel safe in a Baltimore which is not improving. 
In late 2004, Baltimore drug dealers shocked the city when they released an underground DVD titled Stop Snitching, in which they threatened with violence any citizen of Baltimore who interfered with their business. A strange twist emerged after it was discovered that NBA star Carmelo Anthony, who plays for the Denver Nuggets and had lived in Baltimore as a boy, was featured in the video while visiting his old neighborhood. A few months later, in early 2005, the Baltimore Police Department responded to Stop Snitching with a video titled Keep Talking, in which they urged the public to continue to report illicit activity and announced the arrest of at least two participants in the making and filming of the original DVD.
Baltimore culture can be equally interesting and baffling. The city's geography and history as a working class port town has given it a very distinctive social flavor. Probably most prominent example is the city's association with blue crabs. The Chesapeake Bay for years was the east coast's main source of blue crabs, and Baltimore became the central hub of the crab industry. In the tourist district (between Harborplace and Fell's Point) it is almost impossible to find a shop or restaurant that does not serve crabs or crabcakes, or sell some sort of crab related merchandise. Maryland's distinctive way of eating crabs is often not understood by outsiders. Traditionally crabs are steamed in rock salt and Old Bay Seasoning, a favored local all-spice manufactured in Baltimore for decades. They are eaten on tables spread with newspaper with the use of only a wooden mallet, a knife, and one's hands. Cold beer is also said to be a must.
Another popular Baltimore food item is the famous "chicken box". A chicken box is an inexpensive meal consisting of 4 or 5 fried chicken wings served in a fast food carry out box with some kind of starch as a side (e.g. mashed potatoes, fries, rice). The item is chiefly sold at independent fried chicken shops and delis in the city. Chicken boxes are usually enjoyed with "Half and Half", a drink combining iced tea and lemonade - referred to elsewhere in the US as an "Arnold Palmer".
The city's favored local beer has traditionally been National Bohemian, or, as residents refer to it, Natty Boh. The beer and its one time mascot, Mr. Boh, are considered indelible parts of Baltimore culture. Though it is said that few truly enjoy the drink, the historically low price and association with the city make it a local favorite. The National Brewing Company was also the "inventor" of Colt 45 malt liquor in 1963. Natty Boh was also the long-time beer of choice for Orioles and Colts fans at Memorial Stadium. After the Orioles move from Memorial Stadium in 1991, Natty Boh was no longer available to fans at Baltimore sporting events. However, for the 2006 Orioles season, "Boh is Back" and is being served throughout Oriole Park.
Residents are often proud of Baltimore's old-fashioned and often seedy characteristics. One of the more famous seedy spots in the city is The Block, a stretch of district along Baltimore Street between South and Gay Streets. Since the late 19th century the location has variously been home to burlesque shows, nightclubs, strip clubs, pornography shops, and prostitution.
Though the presence of BPD Headquarters at one end of the district has cut down on many illegal activities, the adult entertainment has continued and the area is still popular for city night life.
Baltimore is noted for its near-omnipresent rowhouses. Rowhouses have been a feature of Baltimore architecture since the 1790s, with early examples of the style still standing in the Federal Hill and Fells Point neighborhoods. Older houses may retain some of their original features, such as marble doorsteps. Later rowhouses dating from the 1800s-1900s can be found in Union Square and throughout the city in various states of repair. They are a popular renovation property in neighborhoods that are undergoing urban renewal - although the practice is criticized by some in the city as "yuppification". Elsewhere in the city, rowhouses can be found abandoned, boarded-up, and reflective of Baltimore's inner-city blight.
Mary Ellen Haywood & Charles Belfoure, The Baltimore Rowhouse, 2006, ISBN 1568981775
Alexander Mitchell, Baltimore: Then and Now, 2001, ISBN 1571456880
Perhaps the most intriguing part of Baltimore's culture are the people themselves. Though nowadays the city is extremely culturally diverse, the lasting image of Baltimoreans seems to be the "Hon" culture originating from the Hampden and Canton districts on the north and east ends of town, respectively. Between the 1950s and 70s it wasn't uncommon to see working class local women dressing in bright, gaudy dresses with tacky glasses and beehive hairdoos. Men were often dressed casually but with a general factory or dock worker look, as many in town did indeed have said jobs.
The name of the culture comes from the often parodied Baltimore accent and slang. "Hon" was a common informal name for someone else, properly pronounced "hohn", with emphasis on the vowel. Baltimore's accent has been described as a distinct mix of Southern and British, with many words becoming casual mutterings. For instance "Baltimore" is pronounced "Baldamor" or even "Balmer", and "Maryland" becomes "Murland" or "Murlan". Other common pronunciations include "ohl", "amblance", "wooder", and "share" (oil, ambulance, water, and shower, respectively)
John Waters parodies the Hon culture, as well as Baltimore itself, extensively in his movies. For a somewhat accurate representation of Baltimorese, one can look to Waters' narration spots in his 1974 trash movie Pink Flamingos. Waters himself used a local commercial for Mr Ray's Hair Weaves as his main inspiration. The commercial was famous around town for Mr. Ray's extreme Baltimore accent. "Cawl todaey, or for your freee hum showinck..." was the most memorable line from that commercial, translating as "Call today, or for your free home showing..."
Corned Beef Row
"Corned Beef Row" is a stretch of East Lombard Street that was once the center of Jewish life in Baltimore. Today, only a few landmarks remain. Notable is Attman's Delicatessen, founded in 1915, which is famous throughout the city for its hot corned beef sandwiches.  The Jewish Museum of Maryland is located in nearby Lloyd Street.  The museum campus includes the historic Lloyd Street and B'nai Israel Synagogues and a modern museum building with changing exhibition galleries and research library.
H. L. Mencken
Baltimore was home to Henry Louis Mencken, better known as H. L. Mencken, journalist, satirist, and social critic. Mencken attended the Baltimore Polytechnic Institute, one of best public schools in the city. Mencken achieved iconic status for the editorial columns he wrote at the Baltimore Sunpapers. His work earned him the nickname "The Sage of Baltimore". His personal papers are held in the "Mencken Room" of the Enoch Pratt Free Library. The house he lived in for most of his life, located at 1524 Hollins Street in the city's Union Square neighborhood, is on the National Register of Historic Places.
Baltimore hosted the Miss USA pageant in 2005 and 2006. Donald Trump brought the event to Charm City. It was hosted in 2005 at the historic Baltimore, Hippodrome Theatre, which reopened after a large renovation in 2004. In 2006, the pageant moved to 1st Mariner Arena.
Geography and climate
City plan of Baltimore (1852) by Lucas, Fielding Jr. of Baltimore.Baltimore is in the north central part of the state of Maryland, on the Patapsco River, not far from the Chesapeake Bay. It is on the western edge of the Atlantic Coastal Plain, with low hills rising in the western part of the city. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 238.5 km² (92.1 mi²). 209.3 km² (80.8 mi²) of it is land and 29.2 km² (11.3 mi²) of it is water. The total area is 12.240 percent water.
The Baltimore-Washington Metroplex Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) is the 4th largest in the United States, with an estimated population of 8,052,496.
1888 German map of Baltimore
Baltimore has a coastal temperate climate, with moderating influence from its relative proximity to the ocean. It gets relatively hot, humid summers and cool, moist winters, although these seasons are not as pronounced as those in many other American cities at similar latitudes inland.
July is typically the hottest month of the year, with an average high temperature of 91°F (33°C) and an average low of 73°F (23°C). January is the coldest month, with an average high of 44°F (7°C) and an average low at 29°F (-2°C). These do not compare to the extreme temperatures of comparable U.S. cities at 35°-40° latitude, like Kansas City and Denver, which can get down below 10°F (-12.2°C) quite often in winter and often rise above 100°F (38°C) in the summer. The record high of 108°F (42°C) for Baltimore is easily eclipsed by cities like St. Louis whose record is 109°F (43°C), and the record low of -7°F (-22°C), set back in 1937, is warmer than that of Atlanta, which is -9°F (-23°C), set in 1982. Baltimore rarely experiences temperatures below 10°F and above 100°F. The USDA's 2003 cold hardiness map rates the city of Baltimore as zone 8, with a minimum winter temperature average of 12.3°F (-11°C.), and the Arbor Day Foundation's zone map rates most of the city (and southeastern Baltimore County in zone 8 with a small sliver of the north and west in zone 7. Due to an urban heat island effect in the city proper, where the averages are listed for, temperatures in outlying and inland parts of the Baltimore (which are rated USDA Zone 7) are usually several degrees cooler than those in the city.
Typical in most East Coast cities, precipitation is generous, and very evenly spread throughout the year. The wettest month of May delivers about 4 inches (106.2 mm) of rain and the driest month of April bringing 3 inches (77.7 mm) on average. Snow occurs in Baltimore every winter, with usually several snowstorms dumping at least 4 inches (10 cm). Some winters bring a major snowstorm with heavy snowfall, while others bring no more than an inch or two of snow for the season. Baltimore's largest snowstorm on record occured February 15-18, 2003, when a remarkable 28.2 inches of snow fell. The average annual snowfall is 18 inches (45 cm) in the city, although there is no "typical" Baltimore winter as it can be a fickle season. Winters of less than an inch of accumulation and more than 50 inches have occurred since the NWS began tracking precipitation in Baltimore . In the northern and western suburbs, away from the warming influence of the bay, and higher in elevation, snowfall amounts are usually higher, where  many places annually receive more than 25 inches (64 cm).
The Appalachian Mountains protect central Maryland from much of the harsh northern winds and accompanying lake effect weather that bring subfreezing temperatures and heavy snows to the Great Lakes region, and the Delmarva Peninsula protects Baltimore from many of the tropical storms and hurricanes that affect the immediate coast (although inland-moving storms do affect the area from time to time ).
Average Monthly Temperatures and Precipitation for Downtown Baltimore
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Avg high °F(°C) 44 (7) 47 (8) 57 (14) 68 (20) 77 (25) 86 (30) 91 (33) 88 (31) 81 (27) 70 (21) 59 (15) 49 (9) 68 (20)
Avg low °F(°C) 29 (-2) 31 (-1) 39 (4) 48 (9) 58 (14) 68 (20) 73 (23) 71 (22) 64 (18) 52 (11) 42 (6) 33 (1) 51 (10)
Rainfall inches (mm) 3.48 (88.4) 3.07 (78.0) 4.12 (104.6) 3.06 (77.7) 4.18 (106.2) 3.28 (83.3) 3.96 (100.6) 4.05 (102.9) 4.06 (103.1) 3.19 (81.0) 3.45 (87.6) 3.60 (93.7) 43.59 (1107.1)
Public transit in Baltimore City is provided by the Maryland Transit Administration. Baltimore City has many bus routes, a light rail system, and a subway line. Additionally, MARC commuter rail connects Washington, D.C.'s Union Station with the city's two main intercity rail stations, Camden Station and Penn Station. In recent months there has been serious consideration to extending both Baltimore's light rail and subway lines. A proposed Red Line would link the Social Security Administration to Fells Point and possibly out to the Dundalk/Essex communities. Other possible commuter rail routes are being considered. The major highways serving the city are I-695 (the Baltimore Beltway), I-95, I-83 (the Jones Falls Expressway), and I-70 (the eastern terminus of which is just beyond the city limits). Freeways I-95, I-83, and I-70 are not directly connected because of freeway revolts in the City of Baltimore led by Barbara Mikulski, which resulted in the abandoment of the original plan. There are two tunnels traversing the Baltimore harbor within the city limits: the four-bore Fort McHenry Tunnel (served by I-95) and the two-bore Harbor Tunnel (served by I-895).
Baltimore is a major stop for Amtrak. Named passenger trains which serve Baltimore include Acela Express, Palmetto, Carolinian, Silver Star, Silver Meteor, Vermonter, Crescent, and Amtrak's Regional trains.
Baltimore-Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport - Located in neighboring Anne Arundel County
Martin State Airport - (general aviation) - in Baltimore County
City of Baltimore
Population by year 
1790 - 13,503
1800 - 26,514
1810 - 46,555
1820 - 62,738
1830 - 80,620
1840 - 102,313
1850 - 169,054
1860 - 212,418
1870 - 267,354
1880 - 332,313
1890 - 434,439
1900 - 508,957
1910 - 558,485
1920 - 733,826
1930 - 804,874
1940 - 859,100
1950 - 949,708
1960 - 939,024
1970 - 905,759
1980 - 786,775
1990 - 736,014
2000 - 651,154
In the 1830, 1840, and 1850 censuses of the United States of America, Baltimore was the second-largest city in population. It was among the top 10 cities in population in the United States in every census up to the 1980 census.
As of the censusGR2 of 2000, there were 651,154 people, 257,996 households, and 147,057 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,111.5/km² (8,058.4/mi²). There were 300,477 housing units at an average density of 1,435.8/km² (3,718.6/mi²). The racial makeup of the city was 31.63% White, 64.34% Black or African American, 0.32% Native American, 1.53% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.67% from other races, and 1.47% from two or more races. 1.70% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 257,996 households out of which 25.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 26.7% were married couples living together, 25.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 43.0% were non-families. 34.9% of all households are made up of individuals, and 11.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42, and the average family size was 3.16.
In the city the population was spread out with 24.8% under the age of 18, 10.9% from 18 to 24, 29.9% from 25 to 44, 21.2% from 45 to 64, and 13.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 87.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.9 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $30,078, and the median income for a family was $35,438. Males had a median income of $31,767 versus $26,832 for females. The per capita income for the city was $16,978. About 18.8% of families and 22.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 30.6% of those under age 18 and 18.0% of those age 65 or over.
Baltimore Metropolitan Area
The Baltimore Metropolitan Area currently includes Anne Arundel, Baltimore, Carroll, Harford, Howard and Queen Anne's counties, as well as the city itself. As of 2005 the region was home to more than 2.6 million individuals. As the Washington region has prospered, Baltimore and its suburbs have prospered as well. Howard and Anne Arundel counties have become very affluent and rank nationally in terms of per capita family and personal income. Pockets of wealth exist within the Northern sections of the city, as well as parts of Baltimore County. In addition home prices as well as demand have risen significantly throughout the region attracting several prominent high-tech firms. Currently Johns Hopkins University is the largest single employer in the Baltimore region.
Further information: List of Baltimore neighborhoods
Colleges and universities
Baltimore is the home of several places of higher learning, both public and private. Among them are:
Baltimore Hebrew University
Baltimore International College (BIC)
College of Notre Dame of Maryland
Johns Hopkins University (JHU)
Loyola College in Maryland
Maryland Institute College of Art (MICA)
Baltimore City Community College (BCCC)
Coppin State University
Morgan State University
University of Baltimore (UB)
University of Maryland, Baltimore (UMB, formerly UMAB)
As well as those located within the city, several are located in the suburbs that surround the city. Major ones include:
Goucher College, in Towson (private)
Towson University, in Towson (public)
University of Maryland Baltimore County (UMBC), in Catonsville (public)
Villa Julie College, in Stevenson and Owings Mills (private)
The city's public schools are operated by the Baltimore City Public School System, which includes the flagship Baltimore Polytechnic Institute.
Boys' Latin School of Maryland
The Institute of Notre Dame
Roland Park Country School
The Bryn Mawr School
The Park School
Calvert Hall College High School
St. Paul's School for Boys/Girls
Mount Saint Joseph High School
The Cardinal Gibbons School
Although Baltimore is only 45 minutes north of Washington, it is a major media market in its own right. Its main newspaper, The Baltimore Sun, was sold by its Baltimore owners in 1988 to the Los Angeles Times, which has since been bought by the Chicago Tribune. Baltimore is the 24th-largest television market and 21st-largest radio market in the country.
The Baltimore Sun
Baltimore City Paper
The Baltimore Examiner
The Baltimore Afro-American
The Baltimore Times
The Daily Record
Baltimore Business Journal
Museums and attractions
American Visionary Art Museum
The Jewish Museum of Maryland
Babe Ruth Birthplace and Museum
Basilica of the National Shrine of the Assumption
Baltimore Museum of Art
Baltimore Museum of Industry
Baltimore Maritime Museum
Baltimore Streetcar Museum
Great Blacks In Wax Museum
B&O Railroad Museum
Druid Hill Park
Edgar Allan Poe House and Museum
Fort McHenry National Monument
Lacrosse Foundation Hall of Fame Museum
Maryland Science Center
National Aquarium in Baltimore
National Museum of Dentistry
Pimlico Race Course
Star Spangled Banner Flag House and 1812 Museum
Walters Art Museum
Westminster Hall and Burying Ground
M&T Bank StadiumBaltimore Orioles (Major League Baseball)
Baltimore Ravens (National Football League)
Baltimore Bayhawks (Major League Lacrosse)
Baltimore Blast - (Major Indoor Soccer League)
Baltimore Pearls - (American Basketball Association)
Defunct (or moved) Sports Teams
Oriole Park at Camden YardsBaltimore Orioles - (National League(former American association team), American Association(1882-1889, 1890-1891), American League( American League Orioles are now better known as the present day New York Yankees))
Baltimore Unions - (Union Association)
Baltimore Terrapins - (Federal League)
Baltimore Stallions - (Canadian Football League )
Baltimore Stars - (United States Football League)
Baltimore Colts - (National Football League)
Baltimore Bullets (1947-1955) - (National Basketball Association)
Baltimore Bullets (1963-1972) - (National Basketball Association)
Baltimore Claws - (American Basketball Association)
Baltimore Bayrunners - (International Basketball League)
The First Mariner Arena. (Formerly The Baltimore Arena)Baltimore Bays - (North American Soccer League)
Baltimore Blades - (World Hockey Association )
Baltimore Bandits - (American Hockey League)
Baltimore Clippers - (American Hockey League, Eastern Hockey League, Southern Hockey League)
Baltimore Skipjacks - (American Hockey League, Atlantic Coast Hockey League)
Baltimore Thunder - (National Lacrosse League) - moved to Pittsburgh, then D.C.; now Colorado.
Baltimore has ten sister cities, as designated by Sister Cities International, Inc. (SCI): Cadiz (Spain), Gbarnga (Liberia), Alexandria (Egypt), Genoa (Italy), Kawasaki (Japan), Luxor (Egypt), Odessa (Ukraine), Pireaus (Greece), Rotterdam (Netherlands), Ashkelon Israel, and Xiamen (China).
For more information on Baltimore, Maryland, please visit Wikipedia.